A common misconception in the world of cannabis is that hemp and marijuana are two different plant species. But they are actually two different names for the cannabis plant, a flowering plant in the Cannabaceae family.
Both hemp and marijuana are Cannabis sativa, but hemp is bred and grown with industrial processes and materials in mind due to its stalk and fiber. In contrast, marijuana is grown for its recreational and therapeutic properties and high cannabinoid production, and hemp and marijuana could be considered subtypes of Cannabis sativa.
The other difference between hemp and marijuana lies in the eyes of the law, where hemp is defined as marijuana with less than 0.3% THC content per dry weight, making it federally legal in the United States (as opposed to marijuana, which is a Schedule 1 Drug).
What Is Hemp?
Hemp is a cannabis variety that differs from the more intoxicating type of cannabis called “marijuana.” It is cultivated for its fiber and seeds as both production materials and food sources.
Hemp is a highly versatile plant with many parts that create various foods and materials. Its fibers produce textiles, clothes, and materials for papers, ropes, and building supplies. Farmers harvest the short woody fibers, called hurds, inside hemp stalks to make everything from ceiling panels to bedding materials. The thicker fibers outside the stalks, called basts, are sorted into groups depending on thickness, which impacts their potential uses.
CBD oil can be extracted from hemp leaves and flowers, and because it’s made from hemp, it’s considered federally legal. This has driven a surge of CBD-focused hemp cultivation among farmers. Hemp oil is also valuable for cooking, and its seeds are a handy source of protein and healthy fats.
CBD oil from clean hemp plants offers an impressive résumé of health benefits for individuals, including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective elements. Different kinds of CBD oil derived from hemp, such as CBD isolate or full-spectrum CBD, contain many other cannabinoids and terpenes, so it’s worth exploring which product type may be best for your needs.
As noted above, hemp seeds and hemp seed oils feature high nutritional value, but these are different from CBD oil. The protein, fiber, minerals, and vitamins found in hemp seeds help maintain a healthy brain and can be consumed in various ways, such as in smoothies or hemp milk.
What Is Marijuana?
Marijuana is a variety of cannabis cultivated for the production of its flower and trichomes, which contain higher levels of cannabinoids. Breeders of marijuana plants select strains and parent plants for THC content, specific terpenes, and other cannabinoids to obtain flavor profiles, increase psychoactive effects, or achieve particular health goals. And they have recently selected CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and other minor cannabinoids as focal points for unique therapeutic targets.
Marijuana’s cannabinoids and other compounds interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is responsible for maintaining functions such as fertility, immunity, appetite, memory, and other processes involved with maintaining balance in the body.
While many use marijuana to achieve its euphoric high, cannabis does much more. Research has implicated cannabis in the management and treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions, with many of the following approved as a treatment in different states:
- ALS (aka Lou Gehrig’s Disease)
- Anxiety disorders and depression
- Cachexia or wasting syndrome (some states also consider anorexia or bulimia a qualifying condition)
- Cancer (and chemotherapy side effects)
- Chronic pain (for some states, this can include migraines, headaches, and arthritis)
- Hepatitis C
- Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis
- Neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s, Multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s disease
- Persistent muscle spasms and cramps from certain medical conditions
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Seizures (e.g., from epilepsy)
- Severe nausea
- Spinal cord injuries or diseases
- Potential Benefits
Research is just scratching the surface of the possible health benefits of marijuana. Aside from its legalized medical uses, cannabis offers several general benefits to one’s overall health, such as helping relieve chronic pain and soothing anxiety.
Similarities and Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana
The main difference, from a legal perspective, between hemp and marijuana is the amount of THC inside the plant. According to the 2018 Farm Bill, the hemp must contain less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis. Farmers also need a license to raise hemp plants that meet this legal criterion.
Hemp features many of the same chemical elements found in marijuana, such as cannabinoids and terpenes, but in smaller amounts. Hemp is also intentionally bred for industrial purposes. In contrast, marijuana is grown to optimize for large flower buds and plentiful, resinous trichomes, which store the bulk of THC and other cannabinoids.